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Review of 60 years of industrial production of epoxy resin in China

1. Industrial production of foreign epoxy resin
The first industrially valuable bisphenol A epoxy resin was manufactured in 1947 by Devoe-Raynolds of the United States. It opened up the technical history of epichlorohydrin-bisphenol A resin, epoxy resin. Industrial development began; at the same time, epoxy resin is considered to be a technological advancement over phenolic resins and polyester resins.

2. Industrial production of domestic epoxy resin
China's development of epoxy resin began in 1956, and was first successful in the laboratory in Shanghai and Shenyang. In 1958, Shanghai Resin Factory and Wuxi Resin Factory started industrial production. The industrial production of bisphenol A epoxy resin in China has been 60 years, but it was slower before the 1980s. After the reform and opening up, with the rapid development of China's economic construction, China has rapidly developed into the world's largest epoxy resin producing country, producing country and the world's largest epoxy resin consumer and market.

3. Industrial production of domestic supporting materials
The epoxy resin must be crosslinked into a macromolecular solid of a network structure under the action of a curing agent and its functional auxiliary agent to show the excellent performance of the epoxy resin. However, in the 1970s and 1980s, the production of curing agents in China could not meet the needs of applied technologies, regardless of quality, performance or variety. To this end, China's applied technology researchers cooperate with relevant synthetic production enterprises to jointly develop new materials to meet the new epoxy resin, curing agent and other supporting materials that are urgently needed for scientific and technological development.

1)From June 11 to 13, 1980 in Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, the “E-39-D Electrical Grade Epoxy Resin” appraisal meeting was approved by the Zhejiang Petrochemical Department. E-39-D electrical grade epoxy resin was developed and put into industrial production by Jiaxing Chemical Plant.

2)From November 1st to 3rd, 1982 in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, the “HK-021 Epoxy Resin Liquid Acid Curing Agent” appraisal meeting was approved by the Zhejiang Provincial Petrochemical Department. HK-021 liquid anhydride curing agent is developed and industrialized by Wenzhou Qingming Chemical Plant.

3)In October 1981, the “Electrical Grade Silicon Micropowder” Technical Appraisal Conference hosted by the Zhejiang Science and Technology Commission was approved in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Electrical grade silicon micropowder was developed and put into industrial production by “Huzhou Silicon Micropowder Factory”.

4)In May 1983, Kunshan City, Jiangsu Province, the “T-31 Modified Amine Curing Agent” appraisal meeting was held by the Jiangsu Provincial Science and Technology Commission. The “T-31 Modified Amine Curing Agent” was Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. Jointly developed by the Auxiliary Factory and East China Institute of Chemical Technology, it was put into industrial production by Jiangsu Kunshan Additives Factory. The T-31 amine curing agent is a phenalkamine curing agent which is obtained by reacting mannidine with ethylenediamine, phenol and formaldehyde. The monomolecular fatty amine curing agent has been completely changed to have high volatility, irritating to the skin and respiratory system, and is harmful to the human body. At the same time, the operation time is short, the cured product is brittle, and the comprehensive performance is poor.

4. The turning point in the development of epoxy resin industrialized production in China
The industrial production of epoxy resin in China began in 1958 and has been 60 years since then, but the industrialization of epoxy resin in the first 30 years has been slow. After the reform and opening up, especially the Yueyang Petrochemical Complex Epoxy Resin Factory introduced an annual output of 3,000 tons of epoxy resin equipment from Japan Dongdu Chemical Company in 1988, and the annual production of Wuxi Petrochemical General Factory from Germany Barkite Company in 1989. After the 3,000 tons of epoxy resin equipment, China's epoxy resin industry has developed rapidly.

1)In 1987, the epoxy resin plant of Yueyang Petrochemical Complex of Yueyang City, Hunan Province introduced an annual output of 3,000 tons of high-purity epoxy resin equipment from Japan Dongdu Chemical Co., Ltd., and completed production in 1989. It is the first advanced epoxy resin production device introduced in China.
2)In 1990, Wuxi Petrochemical General Plant of Jiangsu Province introduced an annual output of 3,000 tons of electronic grade epoxy resin equipment from Barkite, Germany, and put it into production.

5. Establishment of the concept of epoxy resin system
Epoxy resin application technology is a combination of professional epoxy resin, curing agent, active dilution, functional additives, fillers, etc., called the "epoxy resin system" concept.
"Epoxy resin system" and "epoxy resin" are two different concepts. "Epoxy resin system" emphasizes the compatibility, professionalism, speciality and functionality of epoxy resin application technology materials; and "epoxy resin" is only a single, universal, universal, general concept.

Because, although epoxy resin castables, potting materials, anti-corrosion coatings, structural adhesives, glass fiber reinforced composite materials and architectural structural adhesives have already appeared on the market as epoxy resin systems, few people have come from the system. "From the perspective of understanding, but only from the single way of epoxy resin, curing agent and other auxiliary materials to develop new products, this often delays the time to solve technical problems due to their own politics.

"Epoxy resin system" - from the perspective of the overall, system, with special emphasis on the coordination and cooperation of other functional auxiliary materials such as epoxy resin, curing agent, toughening agent, reactive diluent, etc. Synchronous development and development of oxygen resin formulation materials can be realized, and combined with application technology, the speed at which materials or products are put on the market is accelerated. In the past few years, great progress has been made and competition can be won in competition with foreign products. The key point is that in recent years, the adjustment and upgrading of China's epoxy resin industry structure has begun to adapt to the needs of international standards, epoxy resin. The results of coordination, exchanges between scientific research, production and business units in the system industry.

In recent years, China has adopted multi-sectoral and cross-system coordination and joint efforts, in the magnetic suspension train long stator epoxy resin supporting system and molding process technology; nuclear power generation epoxy resin supporting materials and application technology; wind turbine fan blade ring Oxygen resin supporting system and molding process technology; high-speed railway non-slag plate structure track rail epoxy resin filling supporting materials; and air gap-free epoxy resin composite material system; nano-grade epoxy resin encapsulating material (glue) and other epoxy resin supporting The system has achieved localization, which fully illustrates the role and development of the “epoxy resin system”.

What is important is that the development of China's epoxy resin system is closely related to and interdependent with the technological advancement of epoxy resin application technology; at the same time, it promotes and promotes each other. Therefore, the combination of the synthesis of epoxy resin, curing agent, toughening agent, diluent, filler, accelerator and colorant and other two major components of epoxy resin application technology has been formed into an epoxy resin system. Epoxy resin formulation design is unique in the field of polymer synthetic materials according to the variability of application technology and the diversity of molding process technology. The development practice and facts of epoxy resin in China over the past 60 years proves the truth that application technology promotes the development of synthetic industry, and the development of synthetic industry has promoted the technological advancement of applied technology.

6.China is the world's largest epoxy resin country, not a strong country
Since the industrialization of epoxy resin in China in 1958, the development of applied technology has made epoxy resin widely used, and the output has increased year by year. However, before the 1980s, the development was slow and the quality was poor. After the reform and opening up, especially in the late 1980s, China introduced advanced foreign production technology and process equipment. The quality of epoxy resin in China has reached the same level as foreign countries, and the production capacity and output have increased substantially.

In 1986, the annual output of epoxy resin in China was about 15,000 tons.
In 2013, China's total epoxy resin production capacity reached 2.03 million tons, the world's total production capacity was 4.06 million tons, and China accounted for about 50%.
In 2015, there were 6 enterprises with an epoxy resin production capacity of over 100,000 tons in China, and the largest reached 320,000 tons. In 2015, the average operating rate of China's epoxy resin industry was about 60%.
In 2016, China's epoxy resin production capacity was 2.25 million tons, and the output was 1.13 million tons. The capacity utilization rate was around 50%.
In 2016, the world's total epoxy resin production capacity was about 4.77 million tons/year. In recent years, global epoxy resin companies' mergers and investment activities have been active. After a series of mergers and acquisitions, the top three rankings of epoxy resin companies in the world are currently : Dow Chemical, Taiwan Nanya Plastics and Momentive Specialty Chemicals, which account for 15%, 12% and 10% of global production capacity, respectively.

The production capacity of epoxy resin in China is mainly distributed in Jiangsu, Anhui Huangshan, Shandong, Guangdong and other provinces and cities. Among them, large-scale installations in Jiangsu are concentrated, and the production capacity accounts for about 52% of the country. The Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are the most concentrated areas for domestic epoxy resin demand.
There is a phenomenon that needs to be paid attention to. Although China's epoxy resin production capacity is growing rapidly, but the variety is single, most of the epoxy resin production capacity is mainly low-end products, high value-added special products and special epoxy resin with high technical content are still Mainly dependent on imports. For example, in 2016, the domestic import of epoxy resin was 240,000 tons, the export volume was 70,000 tons, the net import volume was 170,000 tons, the apparent consumption was 1.3 million tons, and the import dependence was above 10%.

At present, China's epoxy resin industry presents a state of low-end products and insufficient high-end products. After 2007, China's epoxy resin industry began to expand capacity on a large scale, but the development of the entire industry is limited to the speed, scale and quantity growth. There is no such thing as quality improvement, variety upgrading, scientific and technological progress, quality and quantity. There is no unity. A large number of high value-added, high-tech epoxy resins still rely on imports, such as: high-purity electronic grade epoxy resin, high-purity radiation-resistant epoxy resin, high-purity flame retardant epoxy resin, high-purity liquid crystal epoxy resin, high Purity of multi-functional epoxy resin, etc., which seriously hinders the healthy development of China's epoxy resin industry and its application technology and market industry.

With the continuous maturity of China's special epoxy resin production technology, it will certainly make up for the blank of domestic production of special epoxy resin and gradually replace imported products. The import volume of epoxy resin in China will be reduced, and the domestic self-sufficiency rate will gradually increase.

7. Epoxy resin under Sino-US relations
From 2012 to 2017, the domestic epoxy resin production capacity showed an increasing trend, and the external dependence was maintained at an average of around 20%, mainly focusing on the import of high-quality, special and special epoxy resins. The overcapacity of the domestic epoxy resin industry is obvious. With the increase of domestic environmental protection, the domestic factories have limited impact on production and emission reduction, and the overall operation is low, and the capacity utilization rate is low. In 2017, domestic epoxy resin was affected by environmental protection and other factors, as well as the two major raw materials soaring and the downstream demand were strong. The domestic market price surged significantly, which led to an increase in foreign imports.

Domestic imports increased rapidly in 2017, up 16.74% from 2016. Since 2017, a total of 274,800 tons of domestic epoxy resin was imported, of which Taiwan, South Korea, the United States and Germany were in the top four, while the United States imported 33,000 tons, ranking third. From January to February 2018, the country imported a total of 44,800 tons, of which the United States imported 4,314.75 tons, accounting for 9.63% of imports. Therefore, on the whole, the impact of tariffs on epoxy resin is limited.
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